While living and working in Montmartre, Auguste Renoir employed Suzanne Valadon as a model, who posed for Dance at Bougival (1883) and The Large Bathers (1884-87). She modeled for over 10 years for many different artists and studied their techniques. Eventually, Valadon became a famous painter herself and was the first woman painter admitted to the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts.
Bulletism is shooting ink at a blank piece of paper. The result is a type of ink blot. The artist can then develop images based on what is seen. Salvador Dalí claimed to have invented this technique, however Leonardo da Vinci wrote centuries earlier that "just as one can hear any desired syllable in the sound of a bell, so one can see any desired figure in the shape formed by throwing a sponge with ink against the wall."
The male surrealists almost never saw their female counterparts as capable artists, forcing the female surrealists to find ways of working within the restrictions of the surrealist's misconceived notion of women, while still trying to refute it. Varo does this through her images of women in confined spaces. She died at the height of her career from a heart attack in Mexico City.
Whistler's Mother is exhibited in the Musée d'Orsay in Paris, having been bought by the French state in 1891. It is one of the most famous works by an American artist outside the United States. It has been variously described as an American icon and a Victorian Mona Lisa.
Jean-Michel Basquiat first achieved notoriety as part of SAMO, an informal graffiti duo who wrote enigmatic epigrams in the cultural hotbed of the Lower East Side of Manhattan during the late 1970s. By the 1980s, he was exhibiting his neo-expressionist paintings in galleries and museums internationally.
Hans von Aachen (1552-1615) was a German artist, one of the leading painters of Northern Mannerism. He was successful as a painter of princely and aristocratic portraits, and was also able to turn his hand to religious and mythological subjects, as well as the eroticized allegories enjoyed by the patron of his last years, Emperor Rudolph II.
Francisco Goya is considered the most important Spanish artist of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. His late period culminates with the "Black Paintings", applied on oil on the plaster walls of his house the "Quinta del Sordo" (house of the deaf man) where, disillusioned by political and social developments in Spain, he lived in near isolation.