The Yalta Conference, a wartime meeting between Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin from February 4 to 11, 1945, is considered by many experts to mark the beginning of the Cold War. Among the issues discussed at the Yalta Conference were German war reparations, the division of Germany into zones of occupation, and the repatriation of all Soviet soldiers who had joined American and British troops whether they were willing to return or not. It is believed that many of these soldiers were put to death upon their return to Soviet control.
On 24 July 1943, soon after the start of the Allied invasion of Italy, the Grand Council of Fascism voted against Benito Mussolini, and King Victor Emmanuel III had him arrested the following day. On 12 September 1943, Mussolini was rescued from prison in the Gran Sasso raid by German special forces.
The Battle of the Bulge was launched through the densely forested Ardennes region of Wallonia in Belgium, France, and Luxembourg on the Western Front. The surprise attack caught the Allied forces completely off guard. American forces bore the brunt of the attack and incurred their highest casualties for any operation during the war.