The Boston Tea Party was a political protest by the Sons of Liberty on December 16, 1773. The demonstrators, some disguised as Native Americans, in defiance of the Tea Act of May 10, 1773, destroyed an entire shipment of tea sent by the East India Company. The British government responded harshly and the episode escalated into the American Revolution.
On April 14, 1865, during an evening performance of Our American Cousin, John Wilkes Booth entered the State Box where Abraham Lincoln and his wife were watching the play with Clara Harris and Henry Rathbone. Lincoln's bodyguard, a Metropolitan Police Officer named John Parker, had left his post. Booth placed a Derringer pistol in the back of Lincoln's head and fired at point-blank range. Nine hours later, in spite of the best efforts of Lincoln's doctors, the President died.
The world's first postage stamp, the Penny Black, which featured a portrait of Queen Victoria, was introduced by Great Britain in 1840. Initially resisted by the public who didn't like the idea of pre-paying for mail delivery, the postage stamp eventually took off, and the method was quickly adopted by other countries.
Although it was not the official title during his day, Sir Robert Walpole is generally considered the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He served during the reigns of George I and George II, from 1721 to 1742, making his administration the longest in British history.
The bombardment and surrender of Fort Sumter, near Charleston, South Carolina (April 12-14, 1861), started the American Civil War. The Battle of Shiloh, also known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing, was another major battle in the American Civil War, fought April 6-7, 1862, in southwestern Tennessee.
On December 6, 1620, the Pilgrims encountered their first Native Americans -- hostile members of the Nauset tribe. The Nauset would later become the colonists' greatest allies. Most were Christianized and aided the colonists as scouts and warriors against the other tribes. Although no longer distinct as a tribe, most of the Mashpee Wampanoag band are descended from Nauset people.
Offended by Garfield's rejections of his various job applications, Guiteau shot the President at the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station in Washington, D.C. on July 2, 1881. Garfield died two months later from infections related to the injury. Guiteau was hanged for the crime.
Thomas Beckett was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. He challenged Henry II, King of England over the rights and privileges of the Church and was murdered by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion.